Fundamental Forces of Nature
There are four fundamental forces of nature. They were first postulated and then have been confirmed as the laws of Gravitation, Electromagnetic, Weak Nuclear, and Strong Nuclear forces. Today the latter three have already been proved to have unified. These three were shown mathematically to get transformed from one into another seamlessly. It resulted in the award of Nobel Prize in Physics for the scientists who proved their unification. Further based on the mathematical proves the physical proof of their unification resulted in first the prediction and then the discovery of additional elementary particles. Physicists divided the Elementary particles into Matter and Force Carriers. While the former led to form the domain of Composite Particles, the latter into Forces. The effort in this blog is not to dwell into the complex mathematics but to just confine at the macro level where we stand today in terms of broadly understanding the forces of nature as we perceive them in our daily lives. There is enough literature available on web and otherwise for those who want to go deeper in understanding how the forces have unified both mathematically and experimentally.
Now under the Matter category, scientists found Quarks, Leptons, etc., which eventually lead up to the Nuclei, Atoms, and Molecules stage. On the other hand, the Force carriers led to observe existence of Gluons, Bosons, Photons in nature. In this category, only the Gravitons are yet to be found existing in nature. All other fundamental particles on either side have been discovered confirming the unification of fundamental forces except for Gravitational force.
The world very patiently awaits to ultimately welcome the arrival of Unification Theory which unifies all the four fundamental forces of nature.
March 30, 2021